What advancements have been made in the United States in terms of the rights for women and African Americans since the 1960s?
By 1900 only one country allowed women to vote, by 1975 only 129 were allowed. Even once they received the right to vote their were still differences in education and pay. By the late 1960's almost all women were now given access to birth control. This was seen as a major progression as it gave women the control to choose if they wanted to get pregnant, when they want to get pregnant, do they even want to have a family. It also gave them more control over their career and schooling. With this opportunity to have more schooling and in turn being able to now work full-time, they were only making 64% of what men were making even though they were working the same job. This was known as the "Pink-Collar" syndrome. In 1966 the National Organization for women was created, they attempted to get the Equal Rights bill amendment which would prohibit any discrimination agains women. In 1973 the Supreme Court struck down laws which prohibited abortion.
The first advancement that the united states made for african americans were the fact that they were freed from slavery in the 1860's. However, they were still different social, economic and political circumstances by the 1950's. It began in 1954 when the supreme Court ruled to desegregate schools. Shortly after that parks, public housing, buses and air terminals followed shortly after. John F. Kennedy was the first president to talk of a civil rights bill. He was assassinated before this bill could pass. Lyndon Johnson convoked congress to pass Kennedy's Civil Rights Bill, which allowed the government to cut off funding to any program that practiced discrimination. He also created VISTA which worked with his group the Great Society. They would go in and help clean up the inner cities trying to help eradicate poverty. The last thing he brought in was the Voting Rights Act, this act outlawed the literacy tests needed to vote.
Outline the steps that brought about the end of the system of apartheid in South Africa in the 1990s?
The all-white National Party comes to power in 1948, creating an Apartheid was their main agenda. This Apartheid was a doctrine of white supremacy and separate development. Once it was created Non-white South Africans could no longer: Marry outside of their own race, choose where to live or travel where they like. The white South Africans made up only 15% of the entire population but they owned over 87% of the land. The non-whites were forced to live on Brutustans this was enforced by the army and police force. The African National Congress was the most prominent resistance to the Apartheid. They wanted to create a non-racial democracy the National party was scared so they portrayed the ANC as a communist organization. Nelson Mandela became the leader of the African National Congress and was arrested for it in 1964. He won a nobel peace prize in 1993 and was later on elected as the first black President of South Africa in 1994. In 1953 the UN condemned the apartheid system and continued to oppose it every year in the General Assembly. In 1963 the Un tried to organize economic sanctions against S.A. In the 1980's they finally declared the apartheid to be a crime against humanity. in 1961 south africa withdrew themselves from the British Commonwealth. In 1978 Prime minister P.W.Botha made reforms. The external reasons were theta in 1985 canadian P.M. Brian Mulroney urged the Americans to impose limited sanctions.
You must be the change you wish to see in the world.
Gandhi was the created and leader of the Indian Congress Party, he led with a style of protest called pacifism (non-violent resistance). He used many hunger strikes and civil disobedience to resist the british. He would do everything against britain but it would all be peaceful and non-violent. He believed that Hindus and Muslims could share an independent India with support from his right hand man Jawaharlal Nehru. he declares independence for India on January 26th, 1930. This was not the actual date that India gained independence but it was when he decided they had achieved it. He then used his hunger strikes and civil disobedience to bring attention to their independence with the rest of the world. One of his civil disobediences was his protest against the British tax on salt. He walked from Sabarmati, Ashram to Dandi, Gujarat to get salt (240 miles). He gained many followers from this time and drew a lot of media support not just from the rest of the world but also the British. This would become the most memorable independence movement across India and the World. He was assassinated by a fellow Hindu, leading the way for Nehru to take over for him and become Prime Minister.